The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic consisting of 50 states and a federal district. The 48 contiguous states and Washington, D.C., are in central North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is located in the northwestern part of North America and the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also has five populated and numerous unpopulated territories in the Pacific and the Caribbean. At 3.80 million square miles (9.85 million km2) and with over 320 million people, the United States is the world’s fourth-largest country by total area and third most populous. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. The geography and climate of the United States are also extremely diverse, and the country is home to a wide variety of wildlife.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Eurasia to what is now the U.S. mainland around 15,000 years ago, with European colonization beginning in the 16th century. The United States emerged from 13 British colonies located along the East Coast. Disputes between Great Britain and the colonies led to the American Revolution. On July 4, 1776, as the colonies were fighting Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War, delegates from the 13 colonies unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence. The war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by the Kingdom of Great Britain, and was the first successful war of independence against a European colonial empire.] The country’s constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787, and ratified by the states in 1788. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil rights and freedoms.

Driven by the doctrine of Manifest Destiny, the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century. This involved displacing American Indian tribes, acquiring new territories, and gradually admitting new states, until by 1848 the nation spanned the continent. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War ended legal slavery in the country. By the end of that century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean, and its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country’s status as a global military power. The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a position it has retained to the present day. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world’s sole superpower.

The United States is a developed country and has the world’s largest economy by nominal and real GDP, benefiting from an abundance of natural resources and high worker productivity. While the U.S. economy is considered post-industrial, the country continues to be one of the world’s largest manufacturers. Accounting for 37% of global military spending and 23% of world GDP,[] it is the world’s foremost economic andmilitary power, a prominent political and cultural force, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.

In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere “America” after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin:Americus Vespucius). The first documentary evidence of the phrase “United States of America” is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., George Washington’s aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army. Addressed to Lt. Col. Joseph Reed, Moylan expressed his wish to carry the “full and ample powers of the United States of America” to Spain to assist in the revolutionary war effort.

The first known publication of the phrase “United States of America” was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase “UNITED STATES OF AMERICA” in all capitalized letters in the headline of his “original Rough draught” of the Declaration of Independence. In the final Fourth of July version of the Declaration, the title was changed to read, “The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America”. In 1777 the Articles of Confederation announced, “The Stile of this Confederacy shall be ‘The United States of America'”.

The short form “United States” is also standard. Other common forms are the “U.S.”, the “USA”, and “America”. Colloquial names are the “U.S. of A.” and, internationally, the “States”. “Columbia”, a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 1700s, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name “District of Columbia”.] In non-English languages, the name is frequently the translation of either the “United States” or “United States of America”, and colloquially as “America”. In addition, an abbreviation (e.g. USA) is sometimes used.

The phrase “United States” was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., “the United States are”—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865. The singular form—e.g., “the United States is”— became popular after the end of the Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom “these United States”. The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.

A citizen of the United States is an “American”. “United States”, “American” and “U.S.” refer to the country adjectivally (“American values”, “U.S. forces”). “American” rarely refers to subjects not connected with the United States.

A test for 12- grade students

  1. Read the text and choose the right answer below the text.

1.Sometimes, when mail arrives at the post office it is impossible to deliver  it.

  1. Perhaps, there is an inadequate or illegible address and no return address.
  2. The post office cannot just throw this mail away, so this becomes “dead mail”.

4.This “dead mail” is sent to one of the U.S. Postal Service’s dead

  1. mail offices in Atlanta, New York, or San Francisco.
  2. Seventy five million pieces of mail can end up in the dead mail office in
  3. one year.
  4. Thestaff of the dead mail offices have a variety of ways to deal with all
  5. of these pieces of dead mail. First of all, they look for clues that can help
  6. them deliver the mail: they open packages in the hope that something inside
  7. will show where the package came from or is going to. Dead mail will also be
  8. listed on a computer so that people can call in and check to see if a missing
  9. item is there.
  10. However, all of this mail cannot simply be stored forever; there is just
  11. too much of it. When a lot of dead mail has piled up, the dead mail offices
  12. hold publicauctions. Every three months, the public is invited in and bins
  13. containing items found in dead mail packages are sold to the highest bidder.
  14. The best title for this passage is
  15. a) The U.S. Postal Service
  16. b) Staff responsibilities at the U.S. Postal Service
  17. c) Why mail is undeliverable
  18. d) Dead mail offices
  19. The wordstaff in line 8 is closest in meaning to
  20. a) rules
  21. b) machines
  22. c) workers
  23. d) pieces of furniture
  24. Which of the following isNOTmentioned as a way that post office staff members deal with dead mail?
  25. a) They search for clues.
  26. b) They throw the dead mail away.
  27. c) They open dead mail.
  28. d) They list dead mail on a computer.

4.The word auction in line 16 is closest in meaning to

  1. a) sales
  2. b) deliveries
  3. c) meetings
  4. d) demonstrations
  5. Where in the text does the author explain why the post office cannot store dead mail forever?
  6. a) Lines 2- 3
  7. b) Lines 4- 5
  8. c) Lines 7- 8
  9. d) Lines 14- 16


A new study suggests that social (1)_____ sites have (2)_____ a new phenomenon known as “Facebook Depression”. The American Academy of pediatrics recently (3)_____ parents about the possible dangers of networking websites on their children’s mental health.

I think that’s natural, since for some teens and tweens, social media is the primary way they interact socially, (4) _______ than at the mall or a friend’s house.

I see, but it is essential for parents to be aware of how social media sites can affect children and that the Internet is not always a healthy (5) _______ for kids.

  1. a) TV  b) media                  c) radio                 d) newspaper
  2. a) created b) found                   c)put                     d)made
  3. a) wondered b) argued                 c) warned             d) insisted
  4. a) rather b) more                    c) even                 d) moreover
  5. a) site b) place                     c) ecology            d) environment

III. Ընտրել ճիշտ տարբերակը:

When I reached Victoria Station, I (1)_____ straight to the Lost Property Office. But the suitcase I had lost (2)_____ . The original train in which I (3)______ had now gone back to London Bridge Station. I (4)______ because the lost suitcase contained important papers which I needed the next day. While I (5)_____ home, I felt very depressed because I (6)______ the whole evening looking unsuccessfully for my suitcase.

  1. a) Went    b) have gone               c) will go            d) was gone
  2. a) didn’t find  b) was not found c) have not been found     d) wouldn’t have found
  3. a) had been travelling b) have been travelling c) have travelled  d) would travel
  4. a) was upset b) have been upset c) will be upset       d) had been upset
  5. a) would travel b)was travelling        c) had travelled      d) am travelling
  6. a) had wastedb) was wasted             c) would waste      d) was wasting

Bob Johnson is a househusband. For the past five years, he (7) ______ at home with their three children. His wife, Sarah, got up early and (8) _____ off to work at a large law firm downtown. He does some ironing and does the children’s rooms. Before he (9) ____ a househusband, Bob had worked as a teacher. He really liked his job, but he (10) _____ that he hasn’t missed it.

  1. a) would stayb) stayed           c) was stayed             d) has stayed
  2. a) would go           b) goes              c) has gone              d) went
  3. a) has becomeb) becomes       c) was become         d) became
  4. a) will sayb) says c) was saying            d) would say
  5. Ընտրելնախադասությանբովանդակությանըհամապատասխանողտարբերակը:
  6. “Did you meet Ann here at the university?”

“No, we had _____ met when I started college.”

  1. still
  2. already
  3. till
  4. yet
  5. “I took the TOEFL. It was _______ .”

“Had you studied a lot before you took it?”

  1. real hardly
  2. real hard
  3. really hard
  4. really hardly
  5. “Mrs. Williams is always beautifully dressed.”

“She wears _____ nice clothes.”

  1. so
  2. such a
  3. such
  4. so much
  5. “This is a very expensive shop, ______ is cheap there.”

“I can’t believe it!”

  1. nothing
  2. anything
  3. something
  4. everything
  5. ______ Michelangelo began painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.
  6. At the age of 33
  7. At 33 years
  8. At the age of 33 years
  9. At the age of 33-year-old
  10. How _____ times did Rick and Jenifer have to do the experiment before they got the results they had been expecting?
  11. many
  12. many of the
  13. much
  14. much of
  15. George is not _____ to pass the test of economics without anybody’s help.
  16. enough intelligent
  17. intelligent enough
  18. intelligence enough
  19. enough intelligently
  20. Nobody likes talking to Bill because he is fond of giving ______ .
  21. a useless advice
  22. useless advices
  23. useless advice
  24. some useless advices
  25. The exam was quite easy, ____ we expected.
  26. more easy that
  27. more easy than
  28. easier as
  29. easier than
  30. My black jeans _____ dirty. I’ll put on something else and we can go out.
  31. was
  32. is
  33. are
  34. aren’t
  35. Ընտրելհարցիճիշտտարբերակը:
  36. Which is the best ending for the following question?

Everybody realized the danger, ____ ?

  1. did they
  2. did he
  3. didn’t he
  4. didn’t they
  5. Which is the best question for the following sentence?

Yes, it’s never boring.

  1. What do you like about your new job?
  2. Do you like your new job?
  3. Is your new job really boring?
  4. What kind of job do you like?
  5. Which of the following questions is correctly formulated?
  6. a) Do you know the date when we have to hand in the essay?
  7. b) Do you know the date when do we have to hand in the essay?
  8. c) Do you know the date when have we to hand in the essay?
  9. d) Do you know the date when we have to handed in the essay?
  10. Which is the best question for the underlined part of the sentence?

I returned the cheque to Mr. Wallis because there were no signatures on it.

  1. Why did I return the cheque to Mr. Wallis?
  2. What did I return to Mr. Wallis?
  3. Which cheque did I return to Mr. Wallis?
  4. Who did I return the cheque to?
  5. Which is the best ending for the following question?

Nobody was late, ____ ?

  1. were they
  2. was it
  3. weren’t they
  4. wasn’t it
  5. Which is the best ending for the following question?

Don’t forget, ____ ?

  1. do you
  2. will you
  3. don’t you
  4. does he
  5. Which is the best question for the following sentence?

No, it was the worst composition I have ever read.

  1. Was the composition interesting or boring?
  2. What kind of composition was it?
  3. Was the composition interesting?
  4. How did you like the novel?
  5. Which is the best ending for the following question?

Let’s organize a trip to the capital of Great Britain, ____ ?

  1. shall we
  2. shan’t we
  3. don’t we
  4. will you
  5. Which is the best question for the underlined part of the sentence?

They stayed there more than a month but couldn’t get well with him.

  1. Why did they have to stay there?
  2. Where did they have to stay?
  3. How long did they stay there?
  4. How much did they stay there?
  5. Which of the following questions is correctly formulated?
  6. Did he tell you where would be taken the tourists?
  7. Did he tell you where the tourists would be taken?
  8. Did he tell you where would the tourists be taken?
  9. Did he tell you where would be the tourists taken?

A Test on English Proverbs

Q1. Below are sentences that are the paraphrasing of proverbs.

In each case, encircle the proverb that matches with the

paraphrasing best : ( 2 marks for each item)

1. Usually people of the same type tend to be together.

(a) A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

(b) Birds of a feather flock together.

(c) Every bird likes his own nest best.

(d) Eagles catch no flies.

2. Sometimes things are not as valuable as they appear to be.

(a) All that glitters is not gold.

(b) Liberty is better than gold.

(c) Today gold, tomorrow dust.

(d) Where gold speaks every tongue is silent.

3. You must always try not to plan the successful results of something

until those results actually occur.

(a) Divide and rule.

(b) Life is not a bed of roses.

(c) Good finds good.

(d) Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched.

4. One should take care of one’s own family, friends, or fellow citizens

before helping other people.

(a) You reap what you sow.

(b) Nothing hurts like the truth.

(c) Charity begins at home.

(d) It takes two to tango.

5. Don’t form an opinion about something based on appearance alone.

(a) We soon believe what we desire.

(b) Don’t judge a book by its cover.

(c) Seeing is believing.

(d) Two wrongs don’t make a right.

6. When there is evidence of a problem, then there probably is a


(a) Where there is smoke, there is fire.

(b) A burnt child dreads the fire.

(c) Of two evils choose the least.

(d) Out of the frying pan, into the fire.


7. People in general think that nothing can be accomplished without


(a) Look before you leap.

(b) No man can serve two masters.

(c) No pain, no gain.

(d) To run one’s head against a stone wall.

8. When you hurry too much, you are likely to do a poor job, and you

may waste time doing it over.

(a) It is hard to please all parties.

(b) Necessity knows no law.

(c) Misfortunes never come alone.

(d) Haste makes waste.

9. When a group of people with the same goals work together, they can

accomplish more than individuals can do.

(a) Misery loves company.

(b) Too many cooks spoil the broth.

(c) In unity there is strength.

(d) Two’s company, but three’s a crowd.

10.It’s better not to try to improve something that is already satisfactory.

(a) Make hay while the sun shines.

(b) Leave well enough alone.

(c) Strike while the iron is hot.

(d) Don’t cry over split milk.

Q2 Complete the following: (3 marks for each item).

1. Actions speak lounder than words

2. If you can’t beat them, make friends with them.

3. Easy come, easy go.

4. You can’t teach the one who knows everuthung new tricks.

5. A friend in need is a friend indeed.

6. One man’s food is another man’s poison.

7. A cat has nine lives.

8. Blood is thicker than water.

9. When the cat’s away the mice will play.

10.No news is good news.

Աշխարհագրություն:Մոլորակներ:Երկիր :


Արեգակը և նրա շուրջը պտտվող երկնային մարմինները միասին կազմում են Արեգակնային համակարգը: Այն ընտանիք է՝ բաղկացած 10 մոլորակներից, որոնց մեծ մասն ունի առնվազն 1 արբանյակ: Արեգակի շուրջը պտտվում են նաև բազմաթիվ այլ, ավելի փոքր երկնային մարմիններ՝ աստղակերպներ կամ փոքր մոլորակներ և գիսավորներ:

Արեգակն աստղ է: Չափերով այն բազմաթիվ անգամ գերազանցում է Արեգակնային համակարգի մյուս երկնային մարմիններին: 10 մոլորակներն են Մերկուրին (Փայլածու), Վեներան (Արուսյակ), Երկիրը, Մարսը (Հրատ), Յուպիտերը (Լուսնթագ), Սատուռնը (Երևակ), Ուրանը, Նեպտունը, Պլուտոնը և 10-րդը: Մոլորակներն աստղերից տարբերվում են նախ և առաջ նրանով, որ չունեն սեփական լույս, բայց լուսարձակում են, որովհետև անդրադարձնում են Արեգակի լույսը: Continue reading Աշխարհագրություն:Մոլորակներ:Երկիր :



Մայրցամաքների ձևավորման մասին տեսանյութ:

Մայրցամաք, երկրակեղևի խոշոր հատված է, որի մակերևույթի մեծ մասը գտնվում է համաշխարհային օվկիանոսի մակարդակից (այսինքն ծովի մակարդակից) բարձր՝ ցամաքի տեսքով։ Մայրցամաքների թիվը 6-ն է։ Դրանք են՝



Հյուսիսային Ամերիկա

Հարավային Ամերիկա


Ավստրալիա։ Continue reading Մայրցամաքներ:Աֆրիկա:

Աշխարհագրություն:Հայաստանի մարզերը:Արագածոտնի մարզ:


ՀՀ Արագածոտնի մարզի տարածքով են անցնում հանրապետական նշանակություն ունեցող 3 ավտո- խճուղիները`Երևան – Աշտարակ – Թալին – Գյումրի, Երևան–Աշտարակ – Սպիտակ և Երևան – Արմավիր – Քարակերտ – Գյումրի: Մարզի տարածքը հատում է նաև ՀՀ գլխավոր երկաթուղին (միայն ծայր արևմտյան հատվածով և մարզի տնտեսական զարգացման վրա էական ազդեցու- թյուն չի թողնում): Մարզում են գտնվում Բյուրականի նշանավոր աստղադիտարանը, ՀՀ գիտությունների ազգային ակադեմիայի ռադիոֆիզիկայի և էլեկտրոնիկայի, ֆիզիկական հետազոտությունների ինստիտուտները: 2010թ.-ին մարզի տնտեսության հիմնական հատվածների տեսակարար կշիռները ՀՀ համապա- տասխան ճյուղերի ընդհանուր ծավալում կազմել են. ¾ արդյունաբերություն` 1.8 %, ¾ գյուղատնտեսություն` 9.6 %, ¾ շինարարություն` 5.6 %, ¾ մանրածախ առևտուր` 0.7 %, ¾ ծառայություններ` 0.8 %: Մարզի տնտեսության հիմքը արդյունաբերությունը և գուղատնտեսությունն են: Continue reading Աշխարհագրություն:Հայաստանի մարզերը:Արագածոտնի մարզ:

Ես կարողանում եմ


Ես կարողանում եմ կողմնորոշվել տեղանքում: Ունեմ բլոգ, աշխհարագրության բաժին,կարողանում եմ մուտքագրել տեքստ, աշխատել տեքստի հետ, տեղադրել մեդիաֆայլեր: Կարողանում եմ կատարել անհատական աշխատանքներ,տեստային աշխատանքներ: Արշավների ժամանակ կարողանում եմ որոշել տեղանքի աշխհարագրական դիրքը: Աշխատանքները ներկայացված են  https://rafovardanyan.wordpress.com/ բլոգի աշխարհագրական բաժնում:


amazon_river1 18_3_2014_4

Հյուսիսային Սառուցյալ օվկիանոսին պատկանող գետերը

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Ամենաերկարը Լենան է (4480 կմ.), ամենաջրառատը՝ Օբը։ Դրանք աշխարհի խոշորագույն գետերից են։

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Նախագիծ 3

Լոգարիթմական ֆուկցիա կոչվում է F(x)=logax բանաձևով տրված ֆուկցիան, որտեղ a-ն 1-ից տարբեր դրական թիվ է:raf4 raf5


Log3(x-1)=log35+log32             log7(6x-1)=log7(4x+9)

Log3(x-1)=log310                     6x-1=4x+9

x-1=10                                     2x=10

x=11                                        x=5


Log2(x-5)>3             lg(12x-18)<0

x-5>8                      {12x-18>0         x>18:12

x>12                       { 12x-18<1        x<19:12